What is LED?
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into light. The heart of a LED is a semiconductor chip of which one side is bonded to the top of reflector cup often called the anvil. The anvil carries the negative current. The other side of the semiconductor is connected with a micro wire often referred to as the whisker, which supplies the positive current. This assembly is encapsulated in such a way as the upper half of the epoxy resin encapsulation is precisely shaped and acts as a lens to alter the beam angle or divergence.
With the advent of the blue LED the combination of RGB LEDs enabled a new application of LED technology in the way of RGB based white illumination. Coupled with more advanced intensity control full spectrum RGB LED projection came to be. The advent of the blue LED technology enabled the application of the ultimate aim of LED development. Super-bright white light LEDs can actually replace the conventional light sources which is being realized today.
Features and benefits of LEDs: The inherent features of LEDs is decidedly the ability of LEDs to become the best alternative to conventional light sources, and provide a wider range of applications.
Small Size: A LED is essentially a microscopic that, once encapsulated in an epoxy resin, is extremely small and lightweight.
Long Power Consumption: LEDs consume very little power, far less than standard light bulbs leading to greatly reduced energy costs and extremely enhanced global energy savings. LEDs also require far less energy to manufacture than other light sources, reducing the environmental impact of artificial lighting even further. Generally a LED is designed to operate at 2 - 3.6V, 0.02-0.03A current which means a LED typically requires no more than 0.1W to operate.
Rugged: LEDs are rugged, solid state devices and are not susceptible to vibration such as with incandescent filament based bulbs.
Long Lifetime: When operating at specified voltage, current, and within specified environmental conditions, LEDs can enjoy a long life of up to 100,000 hours. A newer way to evaluate LED lifetime has been established and adopted by Neo-Neon which is based on lumen depreciation over time to determine the Mean Time between Failure (MTBF).
High Luminous Efficiency and Low heat emitting: Due to the special materials that are used to manufacture LEDs during electrons transition, LEDs mainly emit electromagnetic energy in the visible parts of spectrum. This is unlike filaments which are heated and emit large amounts of electromagnetic energy in the infrared spectrum which can't be seen and is felt as heat. That is to say, LEDs can convert significantly more of the energy applied into light, and therefore LEDs have a higher luminous efficiency with substantially lower amounts of heat produced.
Environmental Protection: LEDs are made from non-toxic materials, unlike fluorescent lights that contain mercury which poses a danger to the environment and human health.